This theory held that the past was the key to the future and that processes that formed the layers were the very slow processes that we see forming layers at the bottom of the ocean today. Until Lyell successfully convinced scientists that uniformitarianism was the correct theory, it was believed that the worldwide flood and other catastrophic events were primarily responsible for the formation of the geologic layers and that they didn’t represent long ages.
Coins found in excavations may have their production date written on them, or there may be written records describing the coin and when it was used, allowing the site to be associated with a particular calendar year.
It only sequences the age of things or determines if something is older or younger than other things.
Some types of relative dating techniques include climate chronology, dendrochronology, ice core sampling, stratigraphy, and seriation.
In historical geology, the primary methods of absolute dating involve using the radioactive decay of elements trapped in rocks or minerals, including isotope systems from very young (radiocarbon dating with Radiometric dating is based on the known and constant rate of decay of radioactive isotopes into their radiogenic daughter isotopes.
Particular isotopes are suitable for different applications due to the type of atoms present in the mineral or other material and its approximate age.